To be honest, the majority of shepherd dog breeds look almost the same and it’s nearly impossible to find differences between all of them, especially for inexperienced canine owners.
That’s why I decided to collect the most popular shepherd dog breeds in one place and explain all of them, so you don’t have to waste any more time on research.
If you’re interested in shepherd canines and want to learn more about them, just keep reading this article.
Purebred Shepherd Dog Breeds
1. Dutch Shepherd
This dog breed is often compared to one of the most popular shepherds, not only in the U.S. but in the rest of the world as well, the German Shepherds.
The physical appearance was so similar that it required the Dutch Shepherd’s breed standard to be modified to the point that their only official color is brindle. This made it much simpler to identify them.
As the name says, these pups came from The Netherlands, where they had the chance to express their full potential by protecting sheep, properties (primarily farms), and children, as well!
Unfortunately, their career changed during modern times, which is why they became a part of the military and police forces, usually performing the role of search and rescue canine.
Nowadays, Dutchies also work as devoted companions for those who are in need of guiding canines. But, despite all of the new work opportunities, the majority of Dutch Shepherds are still employed for herding in the countryside.
Dutch Shepherds and Belgian Malinois are similar in stature, which is why they’re also often compared. However, as soon as you take a closer look at the two, you’ll notice the differences between them.
They may not be as popular as GSDs or Aussies, but Briards are nothing short of a fantastic shepherd dog breed.
They have ideal characteristics for a pet despite their huge size and puffy coats.
Briards are completely committed to their owners and never leave their sides; however, these pups have the enthusiasm and energy to keep pace during their work in the fields.
I suppose it’s rather easy to guess their country of origin based on the dog breed’s name. These sheepdogs come from France, the Northern part, to be exact.
They are very skilled in guarding and herding sheep and other animals, which is why they were perfect pets for people who live on farms.
These pups have it all, from strength to agility; they can sprint faster than the majority of dog breeds and protect flocks from harm without a trace of fear.
Of course, if you want to unlock the full potential of these pups, it’s crucial to train them from early puppyhood, regardless of the traits they possess from birth.
3. Caucasian Shepherd
This shepherd breed seems to be quite famous in many countries since many have claimed that the Caucasian Shepherds trace their roots back to several different countries. Although, the main belief is that this canine originated in Russia.
Over the course of many centuries, Caucasian pups have spread out from the Eastern part of the world, including countries such as Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, Armenia, etc., to the West.
These giant dogs can weigh from 100 to 170 pounds which is why they are the perfect type of shepherd dog to watch over herds of sheep.
Caucasian pups seem to be bold, courageous, and extremely self-assured canines. There’s not much that can frighten them, which is no surprise considering how big they are.
Another thing that makes them perfect watchdogs is the fact that they possess excellent vision and hearing abilities.
When it comes to their coats and shedding, Caucasian Shepherds are pretty similar to breeds like Chow Chows and German Shepherds because they all have fluffy coats that shed heavily a few times a year.
However, Caucasian pooches don’t share the same colors as Chow Chows.
4. Australian Shepherd
This canine is among the best and most common types of herding and working dogs used on ranches and farms, where they prove their worth every day.
Aussies are excellent at keeping herds under control, and their limitless supply of energy ensures they are constantly moving at top speed.
Thanks to sheepherders from Australia, we have the chance to own these amazing canines that are as good as herding dogs as they are as family pets.
They love to learn new things, which is why both male and female Aussies are great candidates for socialization, obedience training, and everyday physical activities.
Australian Shepherds will be of benefit to every home, not just on ranches and farms, because they’re great family companions and guard dogs.
These pups can often be found in black and tan and merle shades and patterns, which is why they’re often compared to Border Collies.
5. Bohemian Shepherd
This type of herding breed is among the most underappreciated canines, not only for their herding skills but also for their intelligence, loyalty, and agility.
These pups were considered versatile farm canines even in days gone by, which is why they were often found on farms and ranches.
Created for the job of safeguarding thanks to their slim and strong bodies, these canines watched over not just the sheep but also the people who lived with them.
Many people don’t know that these canines were employed as the guards of the Bohemian Kingdom, which is how they got their name.
Some people find them aggressive and dangerous just because of their physical appearance, but the truth is far from that.
They are full of warmth and care for their dog owners, as well as for the rest of their families, especially children. These pooches will never let you down.
6. German Shepherd
As one of the most popular dog breeds not only in the U.S. but in the rest of the world, GSDs were always considered great working dogs, but far from sheepherders.
Despite their role nowadays, these pups were originally used for several things, including herding sheep and watching over them.
Because of this history, German Shepherd dogs are often utilized as police dogs and watchdogs in modern times.
Max von Stephanitz bred together a wide variety of different strains of herding dogs in GermanyIf it wasn’t for him there is a high chance this breed wouldn’t exist.
7. Old English Sheepdog
Many would not consider an Old English Sheepdog a very talented shepherd canine, but most would be astonished once they worked with one.
In addition to the Border Collie and the English Bulldog, these doggies are one of the most recognizable breeds that originated in Great Britain.
Despite this, many people are still of the opinion that these pooches originate from other parts of Europe.
When it comes to their name, I have to mention that it’s somewhat inaccurate since these pups didn’t appear before the 18th century. A significant number of other canines were already being discussed long before the 1700s.
Also, these pups were not shepherd canines at first but those that took the herds to the markets. With time and training, however, they became great shepherd pups.
Nowadays, they’re sociable, amiable, and very energetic dogs. They can spend a lot of time enjoying outside activities, and their hard-working ethics will require you to plan a lot of exercise.
8. Polish Lowland Sheepdog
Many people wouldn’t consider this pup to be an excellent herder because of its size and playfulness. However, as much as they love to play, these canines love to work and be of use in any way possible.
As a medium size pup, this doggie is a hard-working and robust helper that will do well in environments with considerably larger flocks of sheep or even bigger cattle.
As the name suggests, the homeland of the Lowland Sheepdogs is Poland.
Polish Lowlands were not only great at handling sheep, but also served as the flock’s watchdogs and defenders. A lot of people are still impressed by their high energy levels and excellent work ethic.
With their pleasant personality and a caring spirit, it’s difficult not to love them. Sometimes, they can be a bit strong-willed, but that is just the result of their natural guarding instincts, which is another reason why they’re considered great family dogs.
9. The Great Pyrenees
If you’re looking for a kind and friendly canine that has a strong intellect and good working ethics, then the Great Pyr is just the dog for you!
This pup can be both a committed family member and a responsible worker.
However, they have a sense of pride that keeps them away from other pets and family members until they feel like you “deserve” their presence.
Still, there’s no joking when it comes to tasks; if this canine has something to do, they’ll take great pleasure in performing the duty, no matter what it is.
These canines come from the mountain range of the same name which stands between the two European countries, Spain and France.
When it comes to shedding, these pups resemble the majority of shepherd dog breeds; therefore, it’s safe to say that Great Pyrenees shed heavily at least once or twice a year.
10. Belgian Malinois
It might be a surprise that these pups are sometimes compared to GSDs as they are smaller and more energetic versions.
These Belgian puppies are certainly livelier and more animated than the ordinary German Shepherd. This is precisely one of the reasons why Navy Seals decided to use Malinois rather than any other canine.
These pups were initially intended for sheep herding when they were bred in Belgium. But, with time, both dog owners and breeders began to understand the potential these canines had for searching and rescuing, which is why they eventually became military and police dogs.
These pups are serious about everything they do, including hard work and hard training. Belgian Malinois love to train, not only their strength and their agility but also their mental capacity.
That’s exactly why these pups require lots of mental stimulation along with their other training programs.
11. Belgian Shepherd
Belgian Shepherds, also called Belgian Sheepdogs, have the same country of origin as the dog breed mentioned above, but they’re quite distinctive in the majority of other physical and mental segments.
Belgian Shepherd dogs are quite similar to other shepherd dogs, such as the GSDs or Dutchies. However, according to the American Kennel Club’s (AKC) breed standard, Belgians come in a rich black shade only.
These pups have a sharp mind and a great desire to work hard and satisfy their pet owners and other family members.
These shepherds genuinely take pleasure in fulfilling their tasks which is why they’re considered among the best dogs for working in the field and keeping everyone safe.
Because of their strong build and high levels of physical prowess, Belgians have established themselves as one of the world’s best shepherds.
These pups have double coats, just like a significant number of other shepherd canines; therefore, they’re also considered heavy shedders.
This is an exciting type of canine that qualifies as a shepherd dog breed because of their strong instincts to herd that they inherited from their parents.
However, many people will agree that Beaucerons aren’t the first type of pup that springs to their minds when they think of a typical shepherd breed representative.
Just to be clear, these doggies are very clever and adaptable; they’re just not as famous as Aussies, GSDs, and other shepherd canines.
These pups don’t even look like shepherd pups either. Most people agree their coat colors are very similar to the Doberman shades, which isn’t the usual appearance of a herding canine.
This French pup began its journey as a protector of flocks of sheep, but as they showed their versatility, they slowly turned into multipurpose farm canines.
These pups are big and robust, but they can also be described as highly delicate and fragile canines.
They’re quiet herders and don’t like to bark or bite other animals, which is why they’re not classified as conventional shepherd pups.
13. Bergamasco Sheepdog
This type of sheepdog belongs to the herding group even though they’re not as popular as other shepherd dog breeds.
They certainly don’t lack quality even if they lack popularity, and this breed has proven that it possesses great qualities, including good health and strong intellect.
They’re also much easier to maintain because they don’t shed as much as other sheepdogs.
However, they do have extremely thick coats, thanks to their Italian descendants that were originally bred in the Alps.
Bergamasco Sheepdogs enjoy regular activities and exercise, which means you won’t have to spend hours planning the training program for the next day.
These pups love spending time with their owners and might end up sitting on you whenever they get the chance.
However, socialization and basic command training will help you deal with their separation anxiety much more quickly.
14. New Zealand Huntaway
This canine breed is characterized by its huge size and powerful build. The main breeding purpose of these pups was to perform duties, such as protecting and gathering livestock, on farms.
On the other hand, these pups are not your average breed of sheepdog. Even though they’re pretty big and agile, they won’t spend their energy on biting or fighting with other animals.
As the name says, these pups are primarily located in New Zealand. Actually, they are one of the rare breeds that are also still quite rare outside their country of origin.
However, if you’re really interested in this pup, I’m sure you’ll be able to find a way to get one in the USA.
15. Finnish Lapphund
These canines are considered to be one of the most famous herding pups in many countries, not just the U.S., but it took quite a long time for them to finally become shepherd dogs.
Lapphunds were initially used as herding dogs for reindeer. However, during the Second World War , there was a high possibility that these pups would disappear completely.
Fortunately enough, some good people did the best they could to save the breed and started using them for sheep herding.
These canines are incredibly agile and can break into a full run from a strolling pace in a matter of seconds.
The Finnish Lapphund is also known for its thick double coat, which consists of a harsh, lengthy topcoat and a soft, puffy undercoat.
They can be found in a great number of shades, including white, copper, red, brown, or black.
16. Bearded Collie
This type of Collie pup is an optimistic and lively breed that has a thick coat and extended beard-like fur on its chin, which is how they got this particular name.
These pups come from Scotland, another European country, but that’s pretty much everything that is known of this breed’s origin.
According to several theories, these canines might date back to the first century B.C., which would make them one of the oldest dog breeds in general.
Nobody can be 100% sure where these pups came from, but according to experts, they are a mix of Polish Lowland Sheepdogs and other breeds, such as the Komondor (Hungarian Shepherd).
What is known about this breed is that it was used for herding in the countryside areas of Scotland for many generations.
Because of their energetic dispositions, they are quite good at herding sheep. In addition to this, because of their great intellect, they are not too difficult to handle or instruct.
Although they share a similar name to Border Collies, there are almost no physical similarities between the two, at least when it comes to the looks.
17. Cardigan Welsh Corgi
Although this type of Welsh Corgi is older than the other one, the Cardigan breed isn’t as popular as the Pembroke pup.
The main reason for the separation of the two different breeds is their tail; the two types of Corgis are distinguished mainly by the length and set of their tails.
Cardigans usually have longer tails, while the Pembrokes tend to have a short and pointy tail.
These pups are also available with coats in various shades, from black to sable, merle, and other more exotic patterns.
Some people connect them closely to Basset Hounds and Dachshunds by stating that they actually belong to the same breed group.
It’s also believed that the Cardigans existed for two millennia prior to the Pembroke Welsh Corgis, which is a significant amount of time, for sure.
Corgis are great with children, be it Cardigans or Pembrokes, so these pups might also be the right choice for family canines.
18. Icelandic Sheepdog
When it comes to the shepherd dog breeds, this type of canine possesses one of the richest legacies, as it goes back more than a millennia before modern times.
The majority of canine breeds’ origins can be recognized by their name. However, in this case, that may not be true.
Even though most canine owners would agree that Icelandic Sheepdogs come from Iceland, these pups aren’t indigenous to the country. However, it’s important to mention that they developed fully during their time in Iceland.
This spitz dog is excellent at herding sheep, but they’re also inquisitive and joyful pets.
Icelandic Sheepdogs have been so beloved in Iceland that they have become an essential part of the national legacy as a symbol of the country.
However, that’s not the only reason why they’re becoming more popular among breeders and owners.
These canines are great companions for families that are active and love to spend time outside. These pups might become even more popular as family dogs than Labrador Retrievers, which have been among the top three spots for years.
19. Miniature American Shepherd
The first thing that’ll cross your mind every time you see this pup is the Australian Shepherd canine, which is no surprise considering the striking resemblance between the two.
The Mini American Shepherds share almost the same color combinations as Aussies, but they’re not even close when it comes to size.
This pup is a very active dog breed that has a soft spot for horses and is completely devoted to keeping them safe to the point that they even go to horse competitions with them, which is kind of funny considering the size of the two.
Just like the majority of other shepherd types of canines, this pooch keeps its eyes open at all times, along with sporting a serious facial expression.
These pups adjust to all environments without any issues, especially if they’re trained from the first days of their life.
Mini American Shepherds are also exceptionally good in dog shows and conformation competition skills like tracking, speed, obedience, etc.
20. Australian Cattle Dog
This name might not ring a bell to you, but I’m sure you’ll immediately know which canine I’m talking about as soon as I mention their alternative name, Blue Heeler.
This type of shepherd dog is a professional at handling cattle. However, these pups possess fewer sheepherding qualities, which is why they’re considered to be one of the best canines for outside work and activities.
Their background story isn’t as complicated as it may sound at first, but it does involve a breed that is non-existent these days.
Smithfields are considered to be the original breed of these canines, which were developed in Britain and then moved to Australia.
These pups never fully adapted to the new environment, but they were a good fit for crossing with the native pups named Dingoes. The final product became known as the Blue Heeler.
This type of canine has earned a reputation as a hard worker and great herder, even during the most difficult periods.
21. Puli Dog
Informally called the mop pup, this dog isn’t easily confused with any other breed. You might not have known its name, but you surely remember seeing this unique coat at least once in your lifetime.
Puli dogs are small but very hard-working pups that are completely devoted to being shepherds and herders in general.
They also love working with humans, which is another reason why these pooches are great farm dogs.
Pulies are relatively modern with their dreadlock look, but their main purpose isn’t aesthetic as much as it’s functional, unlike the Poodle dreadlock haircut, which is created solely for the admiration of their owners and people passing by.
However, when it comes to Pulies, this type of coat has the benefit of being completely waterproof and suitable for labor, even in harsh circumstances.
Still, even though they’re prepared for work in awful conditions, you can also keep them indoors in a cozy and warm place.
These pups will be completely devoted and obedient to you for the rest of their lives. They love their humans so much that sometimes they might even start walking to the bathroom with you!
22. Berger Picard
As you can see, there are plenty of shepherd pups of European origin, mainly from France and Belgium, but other countries as well.
The Berger Picard is also a French pup that was mentioned during the Middle Ages, which is why many experts believe this is one of the ancient French herding canines.
Still, these pups weren’t acknowledged by the French official institutions and organizations up to the mid-1960s.
In fact, they only became a part of the AKC seven years ago.
Because of their temperamental nature, these doggies are prone to overstimulation, which might cause stress or a milder type of aggression.
In order to help these pups evolve into the best versions of themselves, owners need to provide these pets not only with enough water and food, and a cozy bed, but also with socialization and obedience training, along with other daily activities.
23. Chow Chow
This is probably one of the last dog breeds you imagined seeing on the shepherd dog breeds list.
However, just because they’re not common doesn’t mean you can rule out the possibility that Chow Chows were a shepherd breed in the past.
These pups might be giants, but they’re versatile and intelligent dogs that can protect, herd, hunt, and cuddle!
This type of canine is considered one of the oldest breeds and dates back to ancient China and the Han Dynasty.
During all this time, Chows Chows have really had a chance to develop and evolve into different types of dogs.
Nowadays, their herding instincts are far from what they used to be, but these dogs still have excellent skills to serve as protectors.
Chows have a reserved and wary disposition when they are around unfamiliar people. Despite this, they have a warm relationship with their owners and families.
It’s interesting to notice that Chow Chow shades resemble the colors of some of the most popular shepherd pups, such as the Australian and German Shepherds, which is just another proof of their origin.
24. Pembroke Welsh Corgi
It’s time to mention the second Welsh Corgi type, which is actually the first, according to its popularity.
This pup is one of the most popular pooches on the Internet (along with Pugs). More importantly, they are excellent working dogs, even though their legs are much shorter than those of the other shepherd canines.
I have to admit I’ve heard a lot of stories about this breed, including the tales that are still quite popular among older generations.
One of the tales mentioned that Corgis helped fairies by pulling them into battle.
Now, back to our reality. Purebred Pembroke Corgis are exceptionally good herding canines and some of them have transitioned into sheepherding.
This is probably one of the best decisions because Corgis have a large amount of energy, a heart filled with love, and a joyful personality.
Unfortunately, Corgis aren’t hypoallergenic, which is bad news for lovers of this breed that have allergic reactions to dogs’ hair or saliva.
25. Anatolian Shepherd
This canine would be better described as a protection dog rather than a shepherd because it’s used to guard flocks of sheep and other animals from almost any potential threat.
Despite the fact this isn’t a genuine sheepherding canine, it demonstrates that they’re great at fulfilling their duties.
Anatolian Shepherds are still being utilized in plenty of states in the U.S. which just proves how well they’re doing as herding dogs.
These canines are quite strong-willed and don’t like to be ordered around much.
I’d suggest this pup for people who have their own farms and live in the country rather than those who are looking for an apartment family pet.
There are plenty of reputable Anatolian breeders around the U.S.; I’m sure you’ll find one in no time!
26. Border Collie
If a canine could suffer from workaholism, it would be this shepherd pup. The engine rarely shuts off when it comes to these canines that gather sheep.
In addition, they are rated first when it comes to obedience and intelligence. To put it another way, they are the most efficient at picking up and carrying out instructions.
These canines have fierce energy and an endless amount of strength, which is why they’re known as the top herding canine, not only in the U.S. but in other countries as well!
Although they were originally designed for sheep, they perform exceptionally well with cattle as well.
These pups bark a lot; by that, I mean A LOT. But, barking serves them well during their herding tasks because they can quickly gather sheep just by barking.
On the other hand, if you’re not planning to send your B.C. to the field with a flock of sheep, you could try professional training programs to solve this issue.
27. Shetland Sheepdog
Some might know this shepherd canine by this name, while others might have heard of ”Shelties” before.
Either way, this canine breed was designed specifically for the purpose of herding domestic animals (birds), and sheep.
These pups have built a reputation for themselves, even though people hadn’t paid particular attention to them until the last few years.
They’re related to Rough Collies, with which they share many similarities.
However, Shetland Sheepdogs might also remind you of the red bicolor or blue merle Aussie coat types, especially those with the merle pattern.
The Shetland pups are full of life and have a great amount of energy, making them great family pets.
They like to play just as much as they love to work outside, which is why they’re among the top canines for herding and families.
28. Rough Collie
You might not know what a Rough Collie is. However, I’m sure you’ll instantly remember Lassie, one of the most famous T.V. family pets, along with Scooby-Doo (Great Dane), Rin Tin Tin (GSD) and others.
This type of Collie canine is just as wonderful from the outside as it is from the inside.
Their long topcoat hair has a coarse feel, making it easy to recognize them, as it’s both magnificent and luxurious.
Despite this, there’s no denying that Rough Collies are highly intelligent dogs that are simple to train and extremely dedicated to any task they receive, which is why they’re usually one of the main choices for herding canines.
29. Belgian Tervuren
Surprise or not, here comes one of the many great shepherd dog breeds from Belgium, the home of herding canines, so it seems.
This is a hard-working canine that is self-assured, dedicated, and alert, which means nothing can get past them.
When you place these canines in the country (whether on a farm or ranch), you can be sure that the Belgian Tervuren’s natural urge to guard and herd will soon emerge.
Farmers can trust this pup with any task that must be accomplished without worrying about whether it’s too difficult for them or not.
These canines look a lot like German Shepherds, although Tervurens have longer coat hair and more unique patterns (at least in some cases).
Some of the representatives of this breed are still active in herding and animal guarding. However, a lot of Belgian Tervurens have transitioned into man’s best friend as a family pet.
30. Shiloh Shepherd
This type of herding pup is a versatile working dog that excels at both hauling sleds and patrolling flocks of sheep and cattle.
Shiloh pups possesses fierce energy and complete dedication to their work that a select few other canines can only match.
Many people claim that this type of canine is the result of crossing a German Shepherd and an Alaskan Malamute quite a long time ago.
Their hard-working skills and unique abilities related to their social interactions with animals and humans have helped them to evolve into great public service canines, including as service and therapy pups.
They love to play with children just as much as Rottweilers or any other breed that might look a bit too serious at first until you offer them the chance to show their true colors.
31. Spanish Water Dog
Everything about this breed is interesting and exciting, from their curly coat hair to their wonderful personality traits.
These shepherd canines were in charge of patrolling flocks of sheep, so the farmers decided to groom them the same way as they sheared their sheep.
This is no surprise since they do have pretty similar coats. However, you should be careful not to brush Spanish Water Dogs because it won’t do anything except cause them discomfort.
Still, there is good news regarding this canine breed: They are hypoallergenic! Most dog owners will agree that the Spanish Water Dog’s coat looks similar to a Poodle’s.
Well, the hairstyle isn’t the only thing they share. Poodles rarely shed, and the same goes for Spanish Water Dogs, which is why they don’t cause allergic reactions in most cases.
However, you should still be careful if you’re allergic to canine hair, as you might still be allergic to their saliva or other things related to dogs.
32. Bouvier des Flandres
This is a shepherd dog breed with one of the most elegant names on this list. You might be able to guess where it comes from, but if you aren’t familiar with foreign expressions, let me help you and say that these pups come from France, but they also have origins in Belgium.
Bouviers are kind, devoted, and exceptionally bright dogs that are said to be capable of performing any task that needs to be done.
They are known for their hard work and love to be occupied all the time.
However, they do require early social training to prevent aggressive issues from emerging.
In order to take your pup to places with other canines, such as parks, your pet will need to go through the initial set of training first. This is especially the case if the Bouvier tries to push its powerful and authoritative behavior, as this usually leads to confrontation.
33. White Swiss Shepherd Dog
The Berger Black Suisse or White Swiss Shepherd is a descendant of the White German Shepherd (developed by crossing white German Shepherds).
It’s no surprise that these pups resemble GSDs a lot, not only in their physical appearance but also temperament and personality traits.
Even though they’re white, these canines aren’t Albino Shepherds. This is proven by their black nose and dark eyes.
34. Belgian Laekenois
Here comes yet another well-known shepherd canine that was developed in Belgium, the land of the best shepherd dog breeds (as seems to be the case).
This type of canine breed resembles both the Belgian Tervuren and Belgian Malinois breeds when it comes to their looks. However, this canine has a rather distinct type and shade of coat.
Belgian Laekenois were also initially created for the protection and gathering of sheep herds.
However, during the World Wars, they transitioned into service dogs and were also utilized as messenger canines.
These dogs are adorable, loving, and very smart. It won’t take them long to learn any new skills and to become amiable family pets.
35. Australian Kelpie
One of the most hard-working and underrated canines on this list is definitely the Australian Kelpie.
They’re tireless and won’t stop until they finish all their duties. These pups originated from New South Wales and Victoria, but it didn’t take long before they expanded to other countries and continents!
They have a high energy level which helps them focus more on sheepherding and other tasks they might have.
This breed appears in the U.S. as well, but not as often as in Australia.
After going through all the fantastic shepherd dog breeds, it’s easy to conclude that herding canines are among the most hard-working dogs.
They can protect humans, animals, and properties while being the cuddliest pets you’ve ever had.
I hope this article helped you to finally understand the differences between the shepherd dog breeds.
If you are thinking of getting one of the pups from this list, make sure to find a trustworthy breeder that will offer you a purebred canine without increased health risks.